Category Archives: Linux

linux : Search in files script

A super linux ability : find files containing certain words.
but typing the command (even remembering it! ) is anoying.
Lets create a quick script to ease the use !

sudo nano /usr/bin/myfind

if [ $# -eq 0 ]
    echo "No arguments supplied"
grep -rnw -A1 -B1 './' -e "$1"

Type : myfind aword
to list every file containing « aword » in the current directory and his subfolders (recursive !)

Neural Network – Let’s dub

From noobs to nerds, everyone has been told about neural network. But did you ever play with?

Let’s avoid the MNIST tutorial (handwritten digit recogntion), too boring, and choose something more exciting : music recognition ! Style, instrument, notes, effects, all of this would be nice to extract from mp3 !

Step 1 : find data
We need a lot of data for any kind of recognition. Of course we need music, and also a massive pack of  instrument sample . Let’s start by classifying our datas, each instrument in a folder of it’s name.
Step2 : generate more datas.
1500 samples is not that too bad, but what about getting a lot more ? In visual recognition, we would slightly distort our sample image, let’s do the same on our musical samples.
Now apply chorus, reverb and then filter for getting more realistic samples.
Step 3 : prepare datas
As working on wav file would be painful, let’s transform our sample into representative images, for say spectrogram. As this project has never been documented, we will have to try or to combine different visualisation parameters.
Using Sox, we will get a DFT spectrogram, and use Hamming windows for the frequency analysis, and have to try the Dolph windows for dynamic analysis. For an human eye, the « peak spectrometer » seems also representative, let’s keep an eye on it.

I’m currently using a sh script for crawling music folder, i’ll release it soon here.

Step 4 : Build a brain I : Skull
Now we have to setup the tools to contain and manage our neural network.
I tried TensorFlow, wich works fine but lacks by it’s user-interface, in combination with mnisten, in order to package custom datas in MNIST format.
But even geeks needs some kindness, so we will use NVIDIA’s Digits and their Caffe fork, wich implement multiple neural network sample and tools for data formatting, the whole thing managed via a local webpage.

Building digits and caffe wasn’t so easy,  here’s a short list of command to get it work on a fresh ubuntu 14.04.

 Without CUDA

cd $HOME
sudo apt-get install python-pil python-numpy python-scipy python-protobuf \ python-gevent python-flask gunicorn python-h5py \
libgflags-dev libgoogle-glog-dev libopencv-dev \
libleveldb-dev libsnappy-dev liblmdb-dev libhdf5-serial-dev \
libprotobuf-dev protobuf-compiler libatlas-base-dev \
python-dev python-pip python-numpy gfortran
sudo apt-get install –no-install-recommends libboost-all-dev
git clone digits
export $DIGITS_HOME=$HOME/digits
sudo python
sudo pip install -r requirements.txt
cd $HOME
git clone –branch caffe-0.14
export CAFFE_HOME=${HOME}/caffe
sudo apt-get install
cat python/requirements.txt | xargs -n1 sudo pip install

sed -i ‘$aCPU_ONLY := 1’ Makefile.config
make all
make test
make runtest
sudo pip install –upgrade Flask-WTF


CUDA_REPO_PKG=cuda-repo-ubuntu1404_7.5-18_amd64.deb && wget$CUDA_REPO_PKG && sudo dpkg -i $CUDA_REPO_PKG

ML_REPO_PKG=nvidia-machine-learning-repo_4.0-2_amd64.deb && wget$ML_REPO_PKG && sudo dpkg -i $ML_REPO_PKG

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install digits

Warning  : Training new models on caffe/digits without CUDA is very slow. Our case took more than a week on ImageNet !
If you’re not the owner of a CUDA-compatible nvidia graphic card, you’ll have to spend from 50$ to 25000$ to go further, or use pretrained models.

Step 5 : Build a brain II : external wiring
Let see our goals again : Get Mp3 file as input, Output MIDI file. In the same time, Caffe get images as input and output raw log.
We will basically need 2 programs, let’s say inputter, for spectrographing  a mp3, and launching our tests. The second, outputter, will assume the conversion to MIDI format.

Step 6 : Build a brain III, or 470 !
Take a look on the parameters we want to extract for each instrument note :
– Note duration (attack – sustain – release  events)
– Pitch (or note)
– Velocity / Volume
– Instrument sub-category / style
– Filter
– Reverb
Many of these parameters can easily be calculated when we use monophonic tracks, but in our polyphonic case we will rely on our neural networks from the A to the Z, we came for that ! Sadly, the amount of combination still exceed what a poor computer like ours can do (it would take a 47 million category model to achieve the aimed resolution below ).

// hypothetical way
//Let’s split our job.
//First, what about using one model per instrument ? Better, let’s split their job in 3 :
// Score, instrumentation and effects.
//Score will detect around  : 40 notes * 3 events * 8 volumes = 960 cats  #may vary for polyphonic instrument
//Instrumentation : 20 sub instruments * 50 filters = 1000 cats
//Effects : 12 delays * 5 reverbs * 15 filters = 900 cats

let’s first try to recognize drum and percussions hits. Results in 15 hours ^^ »
Still training, and  get 92% accuracy … Looks promising  !

The MZ61581 PI EXT 2015.12.12 case

Hi mates !

Let’s try to make this LCD screen working on linux raspbian wheezy. Symptoms on first tests were slow fps, or image distorsion.

First attempt : Let’s follow the official setup guide

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
* coffee time *

sudo reboot
cd /boot/overlays
sudo mv mz61581-overlay.dtb old-mz61581-overlay.dtb
sudo wget
sudo nano /boot/config.txt

Add to the bottom :


Save & reboot.
Result : slow fps. might have only 4k DMA memory  ?

Second attempt : What was that default driver ?
It seems that wheezy aldready provided us a mz61581-overlay.dtb file.
Let’s try again the official guide, but now ommit the rm / wget part.
Maybe this old driver would fit better ? (quick answer, no)
Mayber the new raspbian provided mz-overlay.dtb would be better (no again)

Third attempt : Notro our savior !

Working on the previous version of the MZ61581-PI-EXT, i had poor performance until using notro’s work. Let’s take a look on his wiki:
fbtft_device route  : tried
« sudo modprobe fbtft_device name=mz61581 » but mz61581 is only an overlay, not a fbtft official device.
« sudo modprobe fbtft_device name=tontec35_9481 » and « sudo modprobe fbtft_device name=tontec35_9486 », only get the backlight working.
Mz61581 is not one of these !

Forth attempt : woohoo!

Dtoverlay route:
To use the new spi bcm2835 with dma support, let’s disable old spi enabling in /boot/config.txt :
Be sure to use a 32Kb buffer version of mz61581-overlay.dtb !

This works !

Test protocol :

sudo apt-get install mencoder mplayer2
mencoder test.mpg -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4 -vf scale=480:320 -o test_480_320.mpg
mplayer -nolirc -vo fbdev2:/dev/fb1 test_480_320.mpg


Results :
New Tontec drivers have poor performances, but are working.
Old drivers have better performance, but are not fully compatible with the new MZ61581-PI-EXT 2015.12.12.

1) Tontec driver : With config.txt : dtparam=mz61581,debug=32
Laggy display

Module                  Size  Used by
cfg80211              419759  0
rfkill                 16659  1 cfg80211
snd_bcm2835            19739  0
snd_pcm                74833  1 snd_bcm2835
snd_seq                53470  0
snd_seq_device          3650  1 snd_seq
snd_timer              18164  2 snd_pcm,snd_seq
snd                    52116  5 snd_bcm2835,snd_timer,snd_pcm,snd_seq,snd_seq_device
joydev                  9047  0
fb_s6d02a1              3540  0
fbtft                  27517  1 fb_s6d02a1
syscopyarea             2789  1 fbtft
sysfillrect             3313  1 fbtft
sysimgblt               1837  1 fbtft
fb_sys_fops             1149  1 fbtft
ads7846                11340  0
hwmon                   2927  1 ads7846
spi_bcm2708             5149  0
bcm2835_gpiomem         3023  0
uio_pdrv_genirq         2966  0
evdev                  10226  2
uio                     8228  1 uio_pdrv_genirq

[    3.863542] bcm2708_spi 3f204000.spi: master is unqueued, this is deprecated
[    3.888126] bcm2708_spi 3f204000.spi: SPI Controller at 0x3f204000 (irq 80)
[    4.013842] ads7846 spi0.1: touchscreen, irq 484
[    4.027389] input: ADS7846 Touchscreen as /devices/platform/soc/3f204000.spi/spi_master/spi0/spi0.1/input/input1
[    4.034035] fbtft: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unknown, you have been warned.
[    4.038912] fb_s6d02a1: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unknown, you have been warned.
[    4.076110] fbtft_of_value: width = 320
[    4.085907] fbtft_of_value: height = 480
[    4.092665] fbtft_of_value: buswidth = 8
[    4.099748] fbtft_of_value: debug = 3
[    4.105815] fbtft_of_value: rotate = 270
[    4.112181] fbtft_of_value: fps = 30
[    4.126520] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_request_one_gpio: ‘reset-gpios’ = GPIO15
[    4.136612] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_request_one_gpio: ‘dc-gpios’ = GPIO25
[    4.146366] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_request_one_gpio: ‘led-gpios’ = GPIO18
[    4.155397] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_verify_gpios()
[    4.162032] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_init_display_dt()
[    4.169080] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_reset()
[    4.297532] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: B0 00
[    4.304769] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: 11
[    4.311458] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: msleep(255)
[    4.582945] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: B3 02 00 00 00
[    4.590654] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: C0 13 3B 00 02 00 01 00 43
[    4.599359] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: C1 08 16 08 08
[    4.606934] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: C4 11 07 03 03
[    4.614425] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: C6 00
[    4.621006] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: C8 03 03 13 5C 03 07 14 08 00 21 08 14 07 53 0C 13 03 03 21 00
[    4.633602] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: 35 00
[    4.640307] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: 36 A0
[    4.647034] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: 3A 55
[    4.653747] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: 44 00 01
[    4.660693] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: D0 07 07 1D 03
[    4.668133] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: D1 03 30 10
[    4.675296] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: D2 03 14 04
[    4.682411] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: 29
[    4.688689] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: init: write_register: 2C
[    4.694942] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: set_var()
[    4.707942] random: nonblocking pool is initialized
[    4.901920] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 1484 kB/s (202.020 ms), fps=0 (0.000 ms)
[    4.912125] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_register_backlight()
[    4.919447] graphics fb1: fb_s6d02a1 frame buffer, 480×320, 300 KiB video memory, 4 KiB DMA buffer memory, fps=33, spi0.0 at 128 MHz
[    4.933895] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: fbtft_backlight_update_status: polarity=0, power=0, fb_blank=0

1) Tontec driver : With config.txt : dtparam=mz61581,fps=50,debug=32
Laggy display too
[ 5.174915] graphics fb1: fb_s6d02a1 frame buffer, 480×320, 300 KiB video memory, 4 KiB DMA buffer memory, fps=50, spi0.0 at 128 MHz
[   66.306436] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 1475 kB/s (203.191 ms), fps=4 (239.998 ms)
[   66.481634] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 1893 kB/s (158.398 ms), fps=4 (219.991 ms)

2) Rpi Driver : With config.txt : dtparam=mz61581,debug=32
Eurêka, we new have a good fps. Sadly,  there is some weird effect on the display, coor distorsion, strange transparent waves drawn over the image.

[ 3.809940] gpiomem-bcm2835 3f200000.gpiomem: Initialised: Registers at 0x3f2 00000
[ 3.859648] spi spi0.1: setting up native-CS1 as GPIO 7
[ 3.953568] spi spi0.0: setting up native-CS0 as GPIO 8
[ 4.233484] ads7846 spi0.1: touchscreen, irq 484
[ 4.243750] fbtft: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unkno wn, you have been warned.
[ 4.247379] fb_s6d02a1: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unknown, you have been warned.
[ 4.278306] input: ADS7846 Touchscreen as /devices/platform/soc/3f204000.spi/ spi_master/spi0/spi0.1/input/input1
[ 4.297086] fbtft_of_value: width = 320
[ 4.308640] fbtft_of_value: height = 480
[ 4.320960] fbtft_of_value: buswidth = 8
[ 4.333180] fbtft_of_value: debug = 32
[ 4.350623] fbtft_of_value: rotate = 270
[ 4.361306] fbtft_of_value: fps = 30
[ 4.371700] fbtft_of_value: txbuflen = 32768
[ 4.797830] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 12591 kB/s (23.825 ms), fps=0 (0.000 ms)
[ 4.812592] graphics fb1: fb_s6d02a1 frame buffer, 480×320, 300 KiB video mem ory, 32 KiB DMA buffer memory, fps=33, spi0.0 at 128 MHz
[ 324.706973] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 12671 kB/s (23.673 ms), fps=20 (49.978 ms)
[ 324.766897] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 12662 kB/s (23.692 ms), fps=16 (59.906 ms)

2) Rpi Driver : With config.txt : dtparam=mz61581,fps=50,debug=32

The FPS is better, the glitchs remains.
[ 65.625644] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 13373 kB/s (22.432 ms), fps=25 (39.992 ms)
[ 65.665652] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 13370 kB/s (22.438 ms), fps=24 (40.003 ms)

Tried with fps=15 in config.txt, same glitchs happens.

After update

[ 4.592106] bcm2835-rng 3f104000.rng: hwrng registered
[ 4.603414] gpiomem-bcm2835 3f200000.gpiomem: Initialised: Registers at 0x3f200000
[ 4.630936] bcm2708_spi 3f204000.spi: master is unqueued, this is deprecated
[ 4.651956] bcm2708_spi 3f204000.spi: SPI Controller at 0x3f204000 (irq 80)
[ 4.701122] ads7846 spi0.1: touchscreen, irq 484
[ 4.706262] fbtft: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unknown, you have been warned.
[ 4.709738] fb_s6d02a1: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unknown, you have been warned.
[ 4.743410] input: ADS7846 Touchscreen as /devices/platform/soc/3f204000.spi/spi_master/spi0/spi0.1/input/input1
[ 4.762299] fbtft_of_value: width = 320
[ 4.772315] fbtft_of_value: height = 480
[ 4.783039] fbtft_of_value: buswidth = 8
[ 4.792916] fbtft_of_value: debug = 32
[ 4.802531] fbtft_of_value: rotate = 270
[ 4.812214] fbtft_of_value: fps = 15
[ 5.239950] random: nonblocking pool is initialized
[ 5.452605] fb_s6d02a1 spi0.0: Display update: 1225 kB/s (244.778 ms), fps=0 (0.000 ms)
[ 5.468757] graphics fb1: fb_s6d02a1 frame buffer, 480×320, 300 KiB video memory, 4 KiB DMA buffer memory, fps=16, spi0.0 at 128 MHz



Earliest splashscreen / bootsplash / screen mirroring for raspberry !

Hi coderz !

Let’s see how to install a very quick splashscreen / bootsplash for your raspberry (or almost every distro having initrd compiled in kernel).
For this tutorial we will work on a Raspberry Pi 2, on debian wheezy, and a 3.5″ TFT (tontec mz61581), supported with « God-Like » notro’s firmware.
The process will be similar for others LCD, as long as they are supported by notro’s firmware. You can even adapt this tutorial without LCD, but mirroring a single screen can be hazardous !

Principe : To achieve the quickest display, we will first write raw image to the framebuffer(s). As soon as the LCD is loaded, plymouth is displayed to get a nicer and evolutive display. While plymouth is diplayed, we will start mirroring our screens with fbcp.
To save some precious seconds, all of this will be launched trough initramfs.

Bootsplash and splashscreen are quite redundant, you may want to use only one of them !

It’s up to you to install your LCD and the wonderful fbcp !

First, let’s install the required programs :

sudo apt-get install plymouth-drm ffmpeg

Setup initramfs

Initramfs will allow us to preload some devices and programs before the normal startup operations. In practice, it’s a compressed file loaded at boot as a file system. Let’s all praise JAH and rasbian devs, we don’t have no more to compile kernel for using it !

Make initramfs image

sudo update-initramfs -c -k $(uname -r)

Tell the bootloader to use the generated image. Add this to /boot/config.txt:

initramfs initrd.img-X.XX.XX+

Use the filename reported by the update-initramfs command.

Setup loading of fbtft modules

Next let’s try to start sooner our LCD display, including it’s modules to initramfs.

First, we must list the modules that should be included and loaded in the file :


You may have to change the fb_s6d02a1 according to your LCD. See your /etc/modules for inspiration !
To be sure that the SPI master is available before fbtft module is loaded, let’s script the loading.


modprobe spi_bcm2708

Make the script executable:

sudo chmod +x /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-top/spi


As adding program in initramfsfs will also include it’s dependencies, we will avoid using fbi or pngview to display our splashscreen. So we will write with no mercy RGB 565 files to the framebuffers :)

First let’s force screen and framebuffer resolution, choosing some low values, for they are most compatible with older screens. You may want higher values, that’s fine too.

Update /boot/config.txt to add these lines.


It’s now time to prepare your image with your favorite image editor, and save 2 versions of them as png, one in 640×480, one in your LCD native resolution, 480×320 in our case.
(note that ratio don’t match,  deal with that !)

Now we need to translate them in a format that match /dev/fb*, RGB565 seems ok for our color depht. As no graphic editor did include this format, let’s use ffmpeg to convert these png to raw RGB565.

ffmpeg -vcodec png -i image640.png -vcodec rawvideo -f rawvideo -pix_fmt rgb565 /home/pi/image640.raw
ffmpeg -vcodec png -i image480.png -vcodec rawvideo -f rawvideo -pix_fmt rgb565 /home/pi/image480.raw

Including files in our initramfs is a bit tricky on first sight, as we have to create a hook script in order to do this.
We will also use this script to include fbcp in our initramfs.
Create « /etc/initramfs-tools/hooks/ » with this content, and make it executable :

        echo "$PREREQ"

case $1 in
# get pre-requisites
        exit 0

# fbcp
. /usr/share/initramfs-tools/hook-functions
rm -f ${DESTDIR}/etc/image640.raw
rm -f ${DESTDIR}/etc/image480.raw
cp /home/pi/image640.raw ${DESTDIR}/etc
cp /home/pi/image480.raw ${DESTDIR}/etc
chmod 666 ${DESTDIR}/etc/image640.raw
chmod 666 ${DESTDIR}/etc/image480.raw
copy_exec /home/pi/fbcp /etc 
chmod +x ${DESTDIR}/etc/fbcp 
exit 0 

As you can see, we are copying our image in the /etc initramfs directory (maybe not the best location, but we can rely on it’s existence).
If you don’t want screen mirroring, remove all fbcp related lines !

Last step, tell the system to display our images. Let’s edit our previous « /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-top/spi » script and add at the bottom :

cat /etc/image640.raw >/dev/fb0
cat /etc/image480.raw >/dev/fb1


Tell plymouth to use /dev/fb0 or /dev/fb1. If you want to use screen mirroring, choose /dev/fb0.

echo "export FRAMEBUFFER=/dev/fb0" | sudo tee /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/fb0

List plymouth themes

$ plymouth-set-default-theme --list

Set theme

sudo plymouth-set-default-theme joy

Enable plymouth  : Add to /boot/cmdline.txt (all in one line)

fbcon=map:01 splash quiet plymouth.ignore-serial-consoles

You may also want to write « logo.nologo » in cmdline.txt to avoid the raspberry logo display at boot.

Screen mirroring

If you have previously include fbcp via our hook script, the only thing we’ve got to do is to launch fbcp, at the good time. Too early, the LCD won’t be initialized, too late, plymouth would appear only in one screen, being duplicated after, and that may not be enough to fullfill our thirst of perfection !

A correct way of launching fbcp is to create a launcher script in the /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-bottom directory. So let’s do it !

echo "$PREREQ"
case $1 in
exit 0
/etc/fbcp &  
exit 0

Give this script the name of your choice, and make it executable.

Putting all together

Update initramfs (add -v to get more info)

sudo update-initramfs -u

Reboot, and tadaaa !

Notes :

  • The transition between splashscreen and bootsplash is quite rough in the demo video. In practice you may achieve a soft transition using a splashscreen derivated from your choosen plymouth theme.
  • You may get a smaller initramfs size by compressing your raw image. Might be usefull for larger resolutions.
  • Give money to Notro and Tasanakorn, they deserve it !

Sources :